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#[1]alternate [2]alternate Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. [3]more... * [4]NCBI NCBI Logo * [5]Skip to main content * [6]Skip to navigation * [7]Resources * [8]How To * [9]About NCBI Accesskeys [10]My NCBI[11]Sign in to NCBI[12]Sign Out [13]PMC [14]US National Library of Medicine [15]National Institutes of Health Search database[PMC_____________________] Search term ____________________ (BUTTON) Search * [16]Advanced * [17]Journal list * [18]Help * [19]Journal List * [20]Am J Public Health * [21]v.100(9); Sep 2010 * PMC2920964 [22]Logo of amjph Am J Public Health. 2010 September; 100(9): 1584-1585. doi: [23]10.2105/AJPH.2009.187534 PMCID: PMC2920964 Betty Friedan: Feminist Icon and Founder of the National Organization for Women [24]Manon Parry, MA, MSc^ corresponding author Manon Parry is with the University of Maryland, College Park ^corresponding author Corresponding author. Correspondence should be sent to Manon Parry, MA, MSc, Exhibition Program, National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bldg 38, Room 1E-21, Bethesda, MD 20894 (e-mail: [25][email protected]). Reprints can be ordered at [26]http://www.ajph.org by clicking the "Reprints/Eprints" link. [27]Author information |> [28]Article notes |> [29]Copyright and License information |> Accepted November 19, 2009. [30]Copyright [copyright] American Public Health Association 2010 IN 1963, BETTY FRIEDAN (1921-2006) published The Feminine Mystique, a founding text of modern feminism that is considered one of the most influential books of the twentieth century.^[31]1 She was born Bettye Goldstein in Peoria, Illinois, on February 4, 1921. Her father, Harry Goldstein, emigrated from Russia in the 1880s, and built a successful jewelry business in the United States. His wife, Miriam Horwitz, the daughter of Hungarian Jewish immigrants, had been prevented from attending Smith College by her parents. Miriam supported her daughter's education, and Bettye graduated summa cum laude from Smith College in 1942. The following year, she enrolled in a research fellowship in psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. From 1944, she worked as a journalist in Manhattan, writing for the Federated Press and the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America under the name Betty Goldstein. She married Carl Friedman (later Friedan) in 1947, and the couple had 3 children before their divorce in 1969.^[32]2 Friedan was part of a broad movement of union supporters who campaigned against racism and supported women's rights during the 1940s and 1950s.^[33]3 She published numerous articles on women's issues while writing for UE News, including "UE Fights for Women Workers," a pamphlet about discrimination and the double burden of racism and sexism faced by Black women. In 1950, while she was pregnant with her second child, she lost her job because of cutbacks at the paper and began working from home as a freelance writer for women's magazines. She found the work unrewarding and began to consider alternative projects. In 1957, Friedan attended the fifteenth reunion of her Smith College class, and asked her peers to complete a survey about their lives since graduation. She was unsettled by the degree of dissatisfaction they reported and began working on an article about women's experiences of giving up work or further education for motherhood. After rejection by several magazines, she secured a book advance and began the 5-year task of developing The Feminine Mystique, excerpted here.^[34]4 Drawing on her previous training in psychology, as well as history, economics, and sociology, Friedan documented the independence enjoyed by women in the 1920s and 1930s and noted how the 1950s had marked a significant shift away from such self-determination. She described the unhappiness of suburban "housewives," who felt unrewarded by the tasks of their daily lives and guilty for not feeling more fulfilled. While other writers complained that higher education undermined women's abilities to undertake their traditional roles as wives and mothers, she argued instead that women were unfairly confined by the expectation that they should stay at home and focus all of their energies on family life. Friedan described the dissatisfaction they endured as "the problem with no name," and wrote of its terrible toll on the mental health of American women. Thousands of women recognized themselves in the pages of her study and were inspired to join the growing movement for women's rights. In 1966, Friedan cofounded the National Organization for Women (NOW) to campaign for equality. In 1969 she helped launch the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws, later named NARAL Pro-Choice America. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s she was an outspoken advocate for women and a leading figure of the feminist movement. She served on the faculty of the University of Southern California, Queens College, Yale University, Columbia University, and Cornell University and published various follow-ups to her groundbreaking book including It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement in 1976 and Beyond Gender: The New Politics of Family and Work in 1998. Friedan served as a delegate to the United Nation's Decade for Women conferences in Mexico City in 1975, in Copenhagen in 1980, and in Nairobi in 1985. She received the Eleanor Roosevelt Leadership Award in 1989 and was awarded honorary degrees by The State University of New York and Columbia University.^[35]5 She died at her home in Washington, DC, at 85, in 2006. n References 1. Margalit Fox, "Betty Friedan, Who Ignited a Movement With 'The Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85," New York Times (February 6, 2006), 20. 2. Judith Hennessee, Betty Friedan: Her Life (New York, NY: Random House, 1999), 45 3. Daniel Horowitz, Betty Friedan and the Making of "The Feminine Mystique": The American Left, the Cold War, and Modern Feminism (Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998), 135-139 4. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (New York, NY: W. W. Norton [ampersand] Company, 1963). 5. "Betty Friedan,"Who's Who in America 2005 (New Jersey: Marquis Who's Who, 2005), 1564 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association Formats: * Article | * [36]PubReader | * [37]ePub (beta) | * [38]PDF (444K) | * [39]Citation Share * [40]Share on Facebook Facebook * [41]Share on Twitter Twitter * [42]Share on Google Plus Google+ [43]Support Center [44]Support Center External link. Please review our [45]privacy policy. 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LYNXIMGMAP:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/#logo-imagemap 23. https://dx.doi.org/10.2105%2FAJPH.2009.187534 24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Parry%20M%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=20634444 25. mailto:[email protected] 26. http://www.ajph.org/ 27. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/ 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/ 29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/ 30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/about/copyright/ 31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/#bib1 32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/#bib2 33. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/#bib3 34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/#bib4 35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/#bib5 36. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/?report=reader 37. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/epub/ 38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/pdf/1584.pdf 39. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/ 40. https://www.facebook.com/sharer/sharer.php?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2920964%2F 41. https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2920964%2F&text=Betty%20Friedan%3A%20Feminist%20Icon%20and%20Founder%20of%20the%20National%20Organization%20for%20Women 42. https://plus.google.com/share?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2920964%2F 43. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/ 44. https://support.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ics/support/KBList.asp?Time=2018-01-09T09:09:55-05:00&Snapshot=%2Fprojects%2FPMC%[email protected]&Host=ptpmc201&ncbi_phid=F4FB7957A54CC6710000000000BE00AE&ncbi_session=F4FB7957A54CD331_0190SID&from=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2920964%2F&Db=pmc&folderID=132&Ncbi_App=pmc&Page=literature&style=classic&deptID=28049 45. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/privacy.html 46. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/ 47. https://www.nih.gov/ 48. https://www.hhs.gov/ 49. https://www.usa.gov/ 50. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 51. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/ 52. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/home/about/policies.shtml 53. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/home/about/contact.shtml Hidden links: 55. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/account/settings/ [USEMAP] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920964/#logo-imagemap 1. http://www.ajph.org/ 2. http://www.apha.org/ 3. http://submit.ajph.org/ 4. http://www.ajph.org/subscriptions/ 5. http://www.ajph.org/misc/about.shtml

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